Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LiPS)
LiPS is a supplemental/intervention program designed to instruct and improve phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding, orthographic processing, sight word knowledge and spelling through the development of an oral-motor, visual, and auditory feedback system that enables individuals of all ages to identify, sequence and map letters to phonemes. The goal of LiPS is to develop fluent readers and competent spellers
The Wilson Reading System is a highly structured reading and writing program that serves as an intervention and helps students of any age struggling with reading to learn the structure of words and language by directly instructing students to decode and encode (spell) fluently. The program was originally developed for students who have dyslexia, but has been expanded to target the needs of students who are below grade level in reading. Level A uses age appropriate reading material for younger or ESL students, while Level B uses age appropriate reading material for older students.
Based on the Orton-Gillingham multisensory philosophy and principles, the Wilson Reading System provides a well organized, incremental, and cumulative 12-step system. Steps one through six provide students with the basics for decoding and encoding to create a solid foundation before moving on. Steps 7 through 12 focus more on advanced word analysis, vocabulary development, comprehension, and metacognition. The Wilson Reading System provides a plan in which students receive instruction in: learning to hear sounds; manipulating color-coded sound, syllable, and word cards; performing finger-tapping exercises to assist in phonemic awareness; writing dictated words and sentences; reading aloud; and paraphrasing selections they read, and which are read to them. Students receive direct reinforcement and instructional feedback based on their individual performances and do not proceed to the next step until they have met each step’s criteria as each step builds upon the one before.
Orton-Gillingham is an instructional approach intended primarily for use with persons who have difficulty with reading, spelling, and writing of the sort associated with dyslexia. It is most properly understood and practiced as an approach, not a method, program, system or technique. In the hands of a well-trained and experienced instructor, it is a powerful tool of exceptional breadth, depth, and flexibility.
The essential curricular content and instructional practices that characterize the Orton-Gillingham Approach are derived from two sources: first from a body of time-tested knowledge and practice that has been validated over the past 70 years, and second from scientific evidence about how persons learn to read and write; why a significant number have difficulty in doing so; how having dyslexia makes achieving literacy skills more difficult; and which instructional practices are best suited for teaching such persons to read and write.